A transformer is really a static machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another one without changing frequency. It is a standard concise explanation of transformer. As there is no rotating or moving part so transformer is a static device. Transformer runs using ac supply. Transformer works around the principle of mutual induction.
If we would like to know the history of transformer we have return back long from the 1880s. Around 50 years before that in 1830 property of induction which is the working principle of transformer was discovered. Later the transformer design was improved leading to more efficiency and lesser size. Gradually the big capacity of electrical transformers in all the different several KVA, MVA came into existence. In 1950, 400KV electrical power transformer was introduced in high voltage electrical power system. In early 1970s, unit rating as large as 1100 MVA was produced and 800KV and even higher KV class transformers were made in year of 1980.
Generation of electrical power in low voltage level is quite much economical. Theoretically, this low voltage level power might be transmitted to the receiving end. This low voltage power if transmitted brings about greater line current which indeed causes more line lossesBut if the voltage level of an electrical is increased, the existing from the power is reduced which in turn causes reduction in ohmic or I2R losses inside the system, reduction in cross sectional section of the conductor i.e. lowering of capital cost of the program and it also raises the voltage regulation of the system. Because of these, low level power needs to be stepped up for efficient electrical power transmission. This is achieved by improve transformer with the sending side of the power system network. As this high voltage power is probably not given to the consumers directly, this has to be stepped down to the specified level on the receiving end by using step down transformer. Electrical power transformer thus plays a vital role in power transmission. power system Two winding transformers are often used where ratio of high voltage and low voltage is more than 2. It can be economical to utilize auto transformer the location where the ratio between high voltage dexjpky57 low voltage is below 2. Again one particular unit three phase transformer is a lot more cost-effective compared to a bank of three 500kv power transformer in a three phase system. But an individual three phase transformer unit is a little hard to transport and have to be pulled from service entirely if among the phase winding stops working.
Varieties of Transformer
Transformers can be categorized in a different way, depending on their purpose, use, construction etc. The sorts of transformer are the following,
Boost Transformer and Step Down Transformer – Generally used for stepping down and up the voltage degree of power in transmission and distribution power system network.
Three Phase Transformer and Single Phase Transformer – Former is generally found in three phase power system as it is economical than later. However, when size matters, it really is preferable try using a bank of three single phase transformer because it is simpler to transport than one single three phase transformer unit.
Electrical Power Transformer, Distribution Transformer and Instrument Transformer – Power transformers are often utilized in transmission network for stepping up or down the voltage level. It operates mainly during high or peak loads and has maximum efficiency at or near full load. Distribution transformer steps down the voltage for distribution purpose to domestic or commercial users. They have good voltage regulation and operates 24 hrs each day with maximum efficiency at 50% of full load. Instrument transformers include C.T and P.T which are utilized to reduce high voltages and current to lesser values which is often measured by conventional instruments.
Two Winding Transformer and Auto Transformer – Former is often used where ratio between high voltage and low voltage is in excess of 2. It really is cost-effective to make use of later where the ratio between high voltage and low voltage is below 2.
Outdoor Transformer and Indoor Transformer – Transformers that are equipped for installing at outdoor are outdoor transformers and transformers intended for installing at indoor are furnace transformer cost.
Oil Cooled and Dry Type Transformer – In oil cooled transformer the cooling medium is transformer oil whereas the dry type transformer is air cooled.
Core type, Shell type and Berry type transformer – In core type transformer it has two vertical legs or limbs with two horizontal sections named yoke. Core is rectangular in good shape by using a common magnetic circuit. Cylindrical coils (HV and LV) are placed for both the limbs.
Shell type transformer: It has a central limb as well as 2 outer limbs. Both HV, LV coils are positioned around the central limb. Double magnetic circuit is found.
Berry type transformer: The core seems like spokes of wheels. Tightly fitted metal sheet tanks can be used as housing this particular transformer with transformer oil filled inside.